Most Common Operations During Inpatient Stays

Initial Selection:
Maternal/Neonatal Stays:
Compare to:
Maternal/Neonatal Stays:
2015* U.S. National Inpatient Stays
Maternal/Neonatal Stays Included
Rank Operating room procedures (all-listed) Total number of stays Rate of stays per 100,000
1 Cesarean section * 387.4
2 Circumcision * 335.6
3 Arthroplasty knee * 235.8
4 Hip replacement; total and partial * 166.6
5 Spinal fusion * 146.8
6 Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) * 146.7
7 Laminectomy; excision intervertebral disc * 136.3
8 Other OR procedures on vessels other than head and neck * 133.0
9 Partial excision bone * 114.6
10 Cholecystectomy and common duct exploration * 112.8
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), National Inpatient Sample (NIS), 2015
* 2015 counts are not reported due to the change in clinical coding system. 2015 rates are calculated based on the first three quarters of data.

Transition from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM/PCS Coding

On October 1, 2015, the United States transitioned from ICD-9-CM1 to ICD-10-CM/PCS2. The 2015 rates of stays per 100,000 population in this section of HCUP Fast Stats are based on the first three quarters of data with ICD-9-CM codes only (January 1, 2015 to September 30, 2015). The number of inpatient stays by diagnosis in 2015 is not reported because the statistics are not based on full year data. More information on the impact of ICD-10-CM/PCS is available on the HCUP User Support (HCUP-US) web page for ICD-10-CM/PCS Resources.

2016 Data Not Available for Most Common Operations

National statistics after 2015 are unavailable in this section of Fast Stats. The statistics for data prior to and including 2015 are based on the Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) for ICD-9-CM. The HCUP databases starting in 2016 only include diagnosis and procedure codes based on the ICD-10-CM/PCS coding scheme. The ICD-10-PCS refinement of the CCS is still under development.

1 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification
2 International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification/Procedure Coding System

Inpatient Stays

The national estimates presented in this section of Fast Stats are from the HCUP National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS). The NIS is based on data from community hospitals, which are defined as short-term, non-Federal, general, and other hospitals, excluding hospital units of other institutions (e.g., prisons). The NIS includes obstetrics and gynecology, otolaryngology, orthopedic, cancer, pediatric, public, and academic medical hospitals. Excluded are community hospitals that are also long-term care facilities such as rehabilitation, psychiatric, and alcoholism and chemical dependency hospitals. Beginning in 2012, long-term acute care hospitals (LTACs) are also excluded from the sampling frame. However, if a patient received long-term care, rehabilitation, or treatment for psychiatric or chemical dependency conditions in a community hospital, the discharge record for that stay will be included in the NIS.

The NIS is sampled from the HCUP State Inpatient Databases (SID). Beginning with the 2012 data year, the NIS is a 20 percent sample of discharges from all community hospitals participating in HCUP in that data year. For data years 1988 through 2011, the NIS was a 20 percent sample of community hospitals and included all discharges within sampled hospitals. The national estimates presented in this section of Fast Stats were developed using the NIS Trend Weight Files for consistent estimates across all data years (e.g., LTACs were removed from analysis using trend weights).

Unit of Analysis

The unit of analysis in the NIS is the hospital discharge (i.e., the inpatient stay), not a person or patient. This means that a person who is admitted to the hospital multiple times in one year is counted each time as a separate discharge from the hospital. Counts are summarized by discharge year. There were no exclusions applied to the data (e.g., transfers to another acute care hospital are included as separate hospital stays).

Operating Room Procedures

Operating room (OR) procedures are identified using procedure classes that categorize each ICD-9-CM procedure code as major therapeutic, major diagnostic, minor therapeutic, or minor diagnostic. Major therapeutic and diagnostic procedures are considered to be valid OR procedures based on diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). The DRG classification scheme relies on physician panels that classify ICD-9-CM procedure codes according to whether the procedure would be performed in a hospital OR in most hospitals. OR procedures (major therapeutic and diagnostic) were identified using all procedure fields (first-listed and secondary) that were available on the discharge record.

Results are reported using the Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) for ICD-9-CM, which categorizes ICD-9-CM procedure codes into a manageable number of clinically meaningful categories that may be more useful for presenting descriptive statistics and understanding patterns of procedure use. Counts for procedures are de-duplicated within a discharge record: if a particular CCS procedure occurs multiple times during the same hospital stay, it is counted only once. Because there can be multiple procedures reported on a single hospital stay, one discharge record may contribute to the count for more than one operating room procedure. The top 10 ranking is based on the weighted number of stays. Because of the transition from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM/PCS on October 1, 2015, the total number of inpatient stays in 2015 is not reported. The 2015 rate of stays per 100,000 population is based on the first three quarters of 2015 data (Q1-3) only.

Results can be displayed with maternal and neonatal stays included or excluded from the ranking. This option is provided because maternal and neonatal discharges account for nearly a fourth of all hospital discharges in a year and the majority are low complexity, low cost stays. Maternal and neonatal stays are defined using the principal diagnosis CCS 176 through 196 for maternal and CCS 218 through 224 for neonatal.

Rate of Stays per 100,000

The rate of stays includes the HCUP number of stays in the numerator and the U.S. resident population in the denominator (with a multiplier of 100,000). The denominator is consistently defined with the numerator (i.e., rates for females use HCUP counts and population counts specific to females). Population data are obtained from Claritas, a vendor that produces population estimates and projections based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Claritas estimates intercensal annual household and demographic statistics for geographic areas. Rates are not reported by expected payer because currently there is no source for national population insurance estimates that align with HCUP's definition of expected primary payer. Because of the transition from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM/PCS on October 1, 2015, the rate of stays per 100,000 population is based on the first three quarters of 2015 data (Q1-3) only.


Age refers to the age of the patient at admission. Discharges missing age are excluded from results reported by age.


All nonmale, nonfemale responses are set to missing. Discharges with missing values for sex are excluded from results reported by sex.

Expected Payer

The "expected payer" data element in HCUP databases provides information on the type of payer that the hospital expects to be the source of payment for the hospital bill. Information is reported by the following expected primary payers: Medicare, Medicaid, private insurance, and self-pay/no charge. Patients identified as self-pay/no charge have an expected primary payer of self-pay, no charge, charity, or no expected payment. More information on expected payer coding in HCUP data is available in HCUP Methods Series Reports by Topic "User Guide - An Examination of Expected Payer Coding in HCUP Databases" (multiple documents; updated annually). Discharges missing expected payer are excluded from results reported by expected payer.

Discharges with the following expected primary payers are not reported in Fast Stats reporting for most common operations during inpatient stays: other Federal, State, and local programs; missing; or invalid.

Community-Level Income

Community-level income is based on the median household income of the patient's ZIP Code of residence. Quartiles are defined so that the total U.S. population is evenly distributed across four groups. Over time, the data element in the NIS for community-level income has changed definitions. Starting in data year 2002, the cut-offs for the quartile designation are determined annually using ZIP Code demographic data obtained from Claritas, a vendor that produces population estimates and projections based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Claritas estimates intercensal annual household and demographic statistics for geographic areas. The value ranges for the national income quartiles vary by year. Information by community-level income is only reported from 2002 forward because of inconsistent definitions over time in the income-related data elements in the NIS. Income quartile is missing if the patient is homeless or foreign. Discharges missing the income quartile are excluded from results reported by community-level income.

Use this export feature to download all of the underlying data for the most common operations for national inpatient stays (for all characteristics every year) in Microsoft Excel (.xls) format.

  1. Select Excel Export to request the download.
  2. You must read and agree to the terms of the Data Use Agreement for HCUP Fast Stats that is displayed on the screen in order to obtain these data.
  3. Follow the prompts to save a copy of the Excel file to your computer. Prompting will vary by browser.
  4. If you decide to use these data for publishing purposes please refer to Requirements for Publishing with HCUP Data.

Internet Citation: HCUP Fast Stats. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). May 2020. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.
Are you having problems viewing or printing pages on this website?
If you have comments, suggestions, and/or questions, please contact
Privacy Notice, Viewers & Players
Last modified 5/26/2020