SUGGESTED CITATIONS FOR HCUP DATABASES AND TOOLS

Citing HCUP Databases Within Your Abstract and Manuscript:

As specified in the HCUP DUAs, include the database name, HCUP, and AHRQ as demonstrated below for each HCUP database:
  • National Inpatient Sample (NIS) beginning with 2012 data:
    • The study examined regional cost differences for congestive heart failure admissions using discharge data from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.


  • Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) prior to 2012 data:
    • The study examined regional cost differences for congestive heart failure admissions using discharge data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.


  • National Inpatient Sample (NIS) beginning with 2012 data AND the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) prior to 2012 data:
    • The study examined regional cost differences for congestive heart failure admissions using discharge data from the National Inpatient Sample and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.


  • Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID):
    • The study examined inpatient admissions for pediatric asthma patients in 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006 using the Kids´ Inpatient Database (KID), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.


  • Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS):
    • The study examined emergency department visits for diabetes using discharge data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.


  • Nationwide Ambulatory Surgery Sample (NASS):
    • The study examined the 10 most common major ambulator surgeries performed in hospital-owned facilities using encounter data from the Nationwide Ambulatory Surgery Sample (NASS), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.


  • Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD):
    • The study examined 30-day all-cause readmissions for patients who underwent a hysterectomy using discharge data from the Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.


  • State Inpatient Databases (SID):
    • The study examined hospital stays of Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adults using 1993 discharge data from California, Florida, and New York, State Inpatient Databases (SID), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.


  • State Ambulatory Surgery and Services Databases (SASD):
    • This study explored surgery rates for older adults ages 65 and above using outpatient data from Colorado, Connecticut, and Massachusetts, State Ambulatory Surgery and Services Databases (SASD), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.


  • State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD):
    • This study explored injury rates for motor cycle accidents using outpatient data from New York, State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

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Citing HCUP Databases Within Your Reference Section:

First list the database name, then HCUP, followed by the appropriate data years, and then AHRQ and the related Web link. Consider the following examples for each of the HCUP databases:

  • HCUP Databases. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2006-2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/databases.jsp.


  • HCUP National Inpatient Sample (NIS). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2012. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/nisoverview.jsp [Note: this format is used for NIS databases from 2012 and later.]


  • HCUP Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS).
    Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2011. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/nisoverview.jsp
  • [Note: this format is used for all NIS databases prior to 2012 data.]

  • HCUP Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2006 and 2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/kidoverview.jsp


  • HCUP Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2007, 2008, 2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/nedsoverview.jsp


  • HCUP Nationwide Ambulatory Surgery Sample (NASS). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2016 and 2018. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/nassoverview.jsp


  • HCUP Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2014, 2016, and 2017. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/nrdoverview.jsp


  • HCUP State Inpatient Databases (SID). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2005-2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/sidoverview.jsp


  • HCUP State Ambulatory Surgery and Services Databases (SASD). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2007-2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/sasdoverview.jsp


  • HCUP State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/seddoverview.jsp

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Citing HCUPnet:

First list HCUPnet, then HCUP, followed by the appropriate data years, and then AHRQ and the related Web link. Lastly, include the access date. Consider the following example:

  • HCUPnet. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2006-2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://hcupnet.ahrq.gov/ Accessed May 5, 2014.

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Citing HCUP Software Tools:

First list the name of the tool along with the tool’s version (not applicable for ICD-9-CM-related tools), then HCUP, followed by AHRQ and the related Web link. Lastly, include the access date. Consider the following examples for each of the HCUP software tools:

HCUP Software Tools for ICD-10-CM Diagnoses

HCUP Software Tools for ICD-10-PCS Procedures

HCUP Software Tools for CPT/HCPCS Level II Codes

HCUP Software Tools for ICD-9-CM

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Citing HCUP Supplemental Files:

First list the name of the supplemental file, followed by HCUP, then the data year, then AHRQ and the related Web link. Lastly, include the access date. Consider the following examples for each of the HCUP supplemental files:

  • HCUP Cost-to-Charge Ratio (CCR) for the National Inpatient Sample (NIS). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2017. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/ccr/ip-ccr/ip-ccr.jsp. Accessed June 13, 2020.


  • HCUP Cost-to-Charge Ratio (CCR) for the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2016. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/ccr/ip-ccr/ip-ccr.jsp. Accessed February 12, 2020.


  • HCUP Cost-to-Charge Ratio (CCR) for the Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2014. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/ccr/ip-ccr/ip-ccr.jsp. Accessed September 27, 2016.


  • HCUP Cost-to-Charge Ratio (CCR) for the State Inpatient Databases (SID). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2015. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/ccr/ip-ccr/ip-ccr.jsp. Accessed March 4, 2018.


  • HCUP Cost-to-Charge Ratio (CCR) Files for State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2017. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/ccr/ed-ccr/ed-ccr.jsp. Accessed February 2, 2021.


  • HCUP Hospital Market Structure (HMS) Files. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/toolssoftware/hms/hms.jsp. Accessed June 17, 2014.


  • HCUP Supplemental Variables for Revisit Analyses. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2008, 2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/toolssoftware/revisit/revisit.jsp. Accessed August 20, 2013.


  • American Hospital Association (AHA) Linkage Files. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2007. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/state/ahalinkage/aha_linkage.jsp. Accessed August 20, 2013.


  • HCUP 1993-2002 Nationwide Inpatient Sample Supplemental Files. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2000. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/nation/nis/nistrends2.jsp. Accessed April 27, 2015.


  • Trend Weights for 1993-2011 HCUP NIS Data. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2010. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/nation/nis/trendwghts.jsp. Accessed April 27, 2015.


  • HCUP Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) Hospital Ownership Files. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2007-2008. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/nation/nis/nisownership.jsp. Accessed October 3, 2013.


  • HCUP KID Trends Supplemental File. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 1997. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/nation/kid/kidtrends.jsp. Accessed November 12, 2013.

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Internet Citation: Citations for HCUP Databases and Tools. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). April 2021. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/tech_assist/citations.jsp.
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Last modified 4/28/21