Emergency Department Visits Involving Dental Conditions, 2018

STATISTICAL BRIEF #280
August 2021

Pamela L. Owens, Ph.D., Richard J. Manski, D.D.S., M.B.A., Ph.D., and Audrey J. Weiss, Ph.D.


Introduction

Oral health contributes to overall wellbeing and improved quality of life. Untreated poor dental health also can lead to negative general health outcomes.1 Most oral diseases tend to be progressive and cumulative without intervention.2 Tooth decay and periodontal disease are among the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide and have been shown to be associated with a number of life-threatening conditions, including sepsis, diabetes, and heart disease.2,3 Despite the increasing need for dental care, many Americans delay or do not receive it. Failure to receive treatment may make necessary the provision of less definitive and more costly care. Individuals who lack a usual source for dental care may visit hospital emergency departments (EDs) to seek relief for dental pain and related conditions.4,5 The cost of dental-related visits to the ED is high, totaling more than $2 billion nationally in 2017.6

This Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Brief presents statistics on ED visits involving dental conditions using weighted estimates from the 2018 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS). Characteristics of dental-related ED visits, including visits that result in discharge from the ED (treat and release) and visits that result in admission to the hospital, are presented. The most common dental conditions are identified by type of ED visit. For ED visits with a dental condition as a secondary diagnosis, the most frequent first-listed or principal nondental conditions are presented. Because of the large sample size of the NEDS data, small differences can be statistically significant but not clinically important. Thus, only differences greater than or equal to 10 percent are discussed in the text.

Findings

Characteristics of ED visits related to dental conditions, 2018
Table 1 presents characteristics of ED visits related to dental conditions by type of ED visit—all ED visits, treat-and-release ED visits, and ED visits resulting in hospital admission—compared with all other non-dental-related ED visits.
Highlights

Table 1. Characteristics of dental-related ED visits, by type of ED visit, 2018
Characteristic ED visits related to dental conditions All other non-dental-related ED visits
All ED visits Treat-and-release ED visits ED visits resulting in hospital admission
Number 2,009,800 1,899,500 110,300 141,444,600
Rate per 100,000 population
Overall 615.5 581.7 33.8 43,317.1
Age group, years
0-17 290.0 276.8 13.2 38,532.5
18-44 1,107.4 1,073.9 33.5 43,599.2
45-64 473.5 429.9 43.6 39,354.5
65-84 201.7 156.7 45.0 50,529.9
85 and older 197.6 129.7 67.8 94,206.1
Sex
Male 594.1 556.3 37.8 39,309.7
Female 636.3 606.3 29.9 47,198.8
Race/Ethnicity
Black, non-Hispanic 1,362.4 1,306.9 55.6 69,407.1
Hispanic 406.3 383.0 23.4 39,186.2
White, non-Hispanic 520.9 489.4 31.4 37,907.0
Other, non-Hispanic 454.6 423.8 30.8 38,749.9
Patient residence
Large metropolitan 506.3 473.7 32.6 39,983.1
Medium/small metropolitan 680.9 646.1 34.8 44,329.6
Micropolitan 931.0 897.1 33.8 53,398.4
Noncore (rural) 808.3 777.7 30.6 51,216.2
Community-level income
Quartile 1 (lowest) 1,069.1 1,018.3 50.8 62,982.1
Quartile 2 705.7 670.9 34.8 45,847.4
Quartile 3 412.2 386.5 25.7 34,216.3
Quartile 4 (highest) 245.9 225.3 20.6 27,864.4
Abbreviation: ED, emergency department
Notes: Number of stays is rounded to the nearest hundred. Age, sex, and location of patient residence were each missing for less than 1% of ED visits, race/ethnicity was missing for less than 3% of ED visits, and community-level income was missing for less than 2% of ED visits.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), 2018

  • Of more than 2 million ED visits involving dental conditions in 2018, 95 percent resulted in discharge from the ED.

    In 2018, there were 2 million dental-related ED visits in the United States, accounting for 1.4 percent of the 143 million total ED visits. The vast majority of dental-related ED visits were treat and release (94.5 percent), with the remaining ED visits resulting in hospital admission (5.5 percent).


  • The population rate of dental-related ED visits overall was highest among individuals aged 18-44 years, non-Hispanic Black individuals, and those residing in the lowest income communities.

    Individuals aged 18-44 years had the highest rate of dental-related ED visits overall (1,107.4 per 100,000 population) compared with all other age groups—more than double the rate of those aged 45-64 years (473.5) and approximately four to five times higher than the rate for children and older adults. In contrast, the rate of non-dental-related ED visits was highest for individuals aged 85 years and older, more than double the rate for each of the under 65 age groups.

    The rate of dental-related ED visits was more than 2.5 times higher for non-Hispanic Black individuals than for other race/ethnicity groups (1,362.4 vs. 520.9 or less per 100,000 population). Although Black individuals also had higher rates of non-dental-related ED visits than other race/ethnicity groups, the differential was smaller (about 1.8 times higher).

    Individuals residing in the lowest income communities (quartile 1) had the highest rate of dental-related ED visits (1,069.1 per 100,000 population) compared with those from higher community-level income areas. Although the rate for non-dental-related ED visits also was highest among those living in the lowest income communities, the rate differential between the lowest and highest income communities was greater among dental-related than non-dental-related ED visits (4.3 vs. 2.3 times higher).


  • The highest and lowest population rates of dental-related ED visits by patient age group and location of residence differed by the type of ED visit.

    By age group, the population rate of dental-related treat-and-release ED visits was highest among individuals aged 18-44 years and lowest among those aged 85 years and older (1,073.9 vs. 129.7 per 100,000 population). In contrast, the rate of dental-related ED visits resulting in hospital admission increased with age, with the highest rate among those aged 85 years and older (67.8 per 100,000 population vs. 13.2 per 100,000 population among those younger than 18 years).

    By location of patient residence, the population rate of dental-related treat-and-release ED visits was highest among individuals residing in micropolitan areas and lowest among those residing in large metropolitan areas (897.1 vs. 473.7 per 100,000 population). In contrast, there was relatively little difference in the population rate of dental-related ED visits resulting in hospital admission by patient residence location, ranging from 30.6 per 100,000 population in rural areas to 34.8 per 100,000 population in medium and small metropolitan areas.
Figure 1 illustrates the primary expected payer mix of dental-related ED visits compared with all other non-dental-related ED visits. The figure also compares the expected payer source for dental-related treat-and-release ED visits with dental-related ED visits resulting in hospital admission.

Figure 1. Number and percentage of dental-related ED visits for each expected payer, by type of ED visit, 2018


Figure 1 are pie charts that illustrate the primary expected payer mix of dental-related emergency department (ED) visits versus all other nondental-related ED visits, by type of ED visit (all dental-related visits, treat-and-release visits, and visits resulting in hospital admission), in 2018.

Abbreviation: ED, emergency department
Notes: Number of stays is rounded to the nearest hundred. Percentages are calculated from unrounded values. Excludes 0.1% of ED visits with missing expected payer.
* Self-pay/No charge: includes self-pay, no charge, charity, and no expected payment.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), 2018

Pie charts that show the primary expected payer mix of dental-related emergency department (ED) visits versus all other nondental-related ED visits, by type of ED visit (all dental-related visits, treat-and-release visits, and visits resulting in hospital admission), in 2018. All dental-related ED visits: Medicare, 213,700 (10.6%); Medicaid, 848,300 (42.2%); private insurance, 376,400 (18.7%); self-pay/no charge, 523,400 (26.1%); other, 46,100 (2.3%). All other nondental-related ED visits: Medicare, 34,317,100 (24.3%); Medicaid, 45,737,900 (32.4%); private insurance, 39,314,500 (27.8%); self-pay/no charge, 16,731,400 (11.8%); other, 5,222,300 (3.7%). Treat-and-release dental-related ED visits: Medicare, 179,000 (9.4%); Medicaid, 810,200 (42.7%); private insurance, 354,900 (18.7%); self-pay/no charge, 510,900 (26.9%); other, 42,900 (2.3%). Dental-related ED visits resulting in hospital admission: Medicare, 34,700 (31.5%); Medicaid, 38,100 (34.6%); private insurance, 21,600 (19.6%); self-pay/no charge, 12,600 (11.4%); other, 3,300 (3.0%).


  • More than two-thirds of dental-related ED visits were expected to be billed to Medicaid or were self-pay/no charge.

    Medicaid was the primary expected payer for more than two in five dental-related ED visits (42.2 percent), compared with less than one-third of non-dental-related ED visits (32.4 percent). Another one-fourth of dental-related ED visits (26.1 percent) were expected to be self-pay/no charge, compared with 11.8 percent of non-dental-related ED visits.

    A higher percentage of dental-related treat-and-release ED visits than dental-related ED visits resulting in hospital admission had Medicaid as the expected payer (42.7 vs. 34.6 percent); the opposite was true for Medicare as the expected payer (9.4 percent of treat-and-release ED visits vs. 31.5 percent of ED visits resulting in admission).
First-listed or principal versus secondary diagnoses among ED visits involving dental conditions, 2018
Figure 2 displays the percentage of ED visits specifically for a dental condition (i.e., the dental condition was the first-listed diagnosis for treat-and-release ED visits or the principal diagnosis for ED visits resulting in hospital admission) versus those ED visits primarily for a nondental condition where a dental condition was a secondary diagnosis, by type of ED visit.

Figure 2. Percentage of dental-related ED visits, by first-listed or principal versus secondary diagnosis and type of ED visit, 2018


Figure 2 is a bar chart that shows the number and percentage of dental-related ED visits in 2018 broken out (1) by principal diagnosis related to dental conditions versus principal diagnosis related to nondental conditions and (2) by type of ED visit (all dental-related visits, treat-and-release visits, and visits resulting in hospital admission).

Abbreviations: ED, emergency department; N, number of ED visits
Notes: Number of stays is rounded to the nearest hundred. Percentages are calculated from unrounded values.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), 2018

Bar chart that shows the number and percentage of dental-related ED visits in 2018 broken out (1) by principal diagnosis related to dental conditions versus principal diagnosis related to nondental conditions and (2) by type of ED visit (all dental-related visits, treat-and-release visits, and visits resulting in hospital admission). All dental-related ED visits: dental-related first-listed diagnosis, 1,532,500 (76.2%); nondental-related first-listed diagnosis, 477,400 (23.8%). Dental-related treat-and-release ED visits: dental-related first-listed diagnosis, 1,520,700 (80.1%); nondental-related first-listed diagnosis, 378,800 (19.9%). Dental-related ED visits resulting in hospital admission: dental-related first-listed diagnosis, 11,800 (10.7%); nondental-related first-listed diagnosis, 98,500 (89.3%).


  • The majority of dental-related treat-and-release ED visits were primarily for a dental condition, whereas the majority of dental-related ED visits resulting in hospital admission were principally for a nondental condition.

    Eighty percent of dental-related treat-and-release ED visits were primarily for a dental condition, whereas 20 percent of visits were primarily for a nondental condition. In contrast, among dental-related ED visits resulting in hospital admission, only about 10 percent were principally for a dental condition and nearly 90 percent were principally for a nondental condition.
Table 2 shows the five most common groups of dental conditions among all dental-related ED visits, by type of ED visit and by whether the ED visit was primarily for the dental condition (first-listed or principal diagnosis only), included only secondary dental conditions, or included either principal or secondary dental conditions (any-listed diagnosis).

Table 2. Top five most common groups of dental conditions among ED visits, by type of ED visit, 2018
Diagnosis by dental condition group* All dental-related ED visits Dental-related treat-and-release ED visits Dental-related ED visits resulting in hospital admission
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
First-listed or principal diagnosis 1,532,500 100.0 1,520,700 100.0 11,800 100.0
Loss of teeth and similar disorders of teeth and supporting structures 584,400 38.1 584,300 38.4 100 1.2
Diseases of pulp and periapical tissues 513,900 33.5 503,800 33.1 10,100 85.3
Dental caries 323,300 21.1 322,900 21.2 400 3.1
Gingival disorders 45,400 3.0 44,900 3.0 500 4.2
Cracked tooth and other diseases of hard tissues of teeth 20,300 1.3 20,300 1.3 - -
Periodontitis - - - - 700 5.6
Secondary diagnosis only 477,300 100.0 378,800 100.0 98,500 100.0
Loss of teeth and similar disorders of teeth and supporting structures 318,100 66.6 295,400 78.0 22,700 23.1
Diseases of pulp and periapical tissues 150,400 31.5 118,900 31.4 31,500 31.9
Dental caries 292,000 61.2 255,400 67.4 36,600 37.1
Gingival disorders 50,700 10.6 41,600 11.0 9,100 9.2
Cracked tooth and other diseases of hard tissues of teeth 33,100 6.9 31,300 8.3 - -
Periodontitis - - - - 7,700 7.8
Any-listed diagnosis 2,009,800 100.0 1,899,500 100.0 110,300 100.0
Loss of teeth and similar disorders of teeth and supporting structures 902,500 44.9 879,600 46.3 22,900 20.7
Diseases of pulp and periapical tissues 664,300 33.1 622,700 32.8 41,600 37.7
Dental caries 615,300 30.6 578,300 30.4 36,900 33.5
Gingival disorders 96,100 4.8 86,500 4.6 9,600 8.7
Cracked tooth and other diseases of hard tissues of teeth 53,400 2.7 51,600 2.7 - -
Periodontitis - - - - 8,400 7.6
Abbreviations: ED, emergency department; ICD-10-CM, International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification
Notes: Number of stays is rounded to the nearest hundred. Percentages are calculated from unrounded values. Counts of stays with any-listed dental diagnosis include those stays with a first-listed or principal dental diagnosis. Condition groups that were not in the top five for the type of ED visit are denoted with a "-". For secondary diagnosis only and any-listed diagnosis, the sum across dental-related condition groups may exceed 100% because an ED visit may include more than one dental-related condition group.
* See Appendix A for a list of ICD-10-CM diagnoses by dental condition grouping.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), 2018

  • Among treat-and-release ED visits with a principal diagnosis of a dental condition, 92.7 percent were for one of three groups of conditions: loss of teeth and similar disorders, diseases of pulp and periapical tissues, and dental caries.

    The three most common groups of dental conditions among dental-related treat-and-release ED visits with a first-listed, secondary only, or any-listed diagnosis of a dental condition were:
    • Loss of teeth and similar disorders (38.4, 78.0, and 46.3 percent of visits, respectively)
    • Diseases of pulp and periapical tissues (33.1, 31.4, and 32.8 percent of visits, respectively)
    • Dental caries (21.2, 67.4, and 30.4 percent of visits, respectively)


  • Among ED visits resulting in hospital admission with a principal diagnosis of a dental condition, 85.3 percent were for diseases of pulp and periapical tissues.

    The most common group of dental conditions among dental-related ED visits resulting in hospital admission was diseases of pulp and periapical tissues for visits with a principal or any-listed diagnosis of a dental condition (85.3 and 37.7 percent of visits, respectively) and dental caries for visits with only a secondary diagnosis of a dental condition (37.1 percent of visits).
Table 3 presents the five most common nondental conditions among ED visits with a dental condition as a secondary diagnosis only, by type of ED visit.

Table 3. Top five first-listed or principal nondental conditions among ED visits with a dental condition as a secondary diagnosis only, by type of ED visit, 2018
First-listed or principal diagnosis (CCSR) All dental-related ED visits Dental-related treat-and-release ED visits Dental-related ED visits resulting in hospital admission
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
First-listed or principal diagnosis of a nondental condition 477,400 100.0 378,800 100.0 98,500 100.0
Fracture of head and neck, initial encounter (INJ001) 28,300 5.9 24,700> 6.5 3,600 3.6
Skin and subcutaneous tissue infections (SKN001) 26,300 5.5 19,500 5.2 6,800 6.9
Other specified complications in pregnancy (PRG028)* 21,800 4.6 21,300 5.6 - -
Other specified upper respiratory infections (RSP006)† 20,100 4.2 19,400 5.1 - -
Headache; including migraine (NVS010) 17,800 3.7 17,700 4.7 - -
Septicemia (INF002) - - - - 13,000 13.2
Diseases of mouth; excluding dental (DIG003) - - - - 4,200 4.2
Diabetes mellitus with complication (END003) - - - - 3,600 3.6
Abbreviations: CCSR, Clinical Classifications Software Refined for ICD-10-CM Diagnoses, v.2021.1; ED, emergency department; ICD-10-CM, International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification
Notes: Diagnoses are grouped using the Clinical Classifications Software Refined (CCSR) for ICD-10-CM Diagnoses. First-listed or principal diagnosis is assigned to a single default CCSR category. Number of stays is rounded to the nearest hundred. Percentages are calculated from unrounded values. Diagnoses that were not in the top five for the type of ED visit are denoted with a "-".
* Includes diseases of the digestive system complicating pregnancy and childbirth and other complications of pregnancy.
† Includes acute upper respiratory infection, acute and streptococcal pharyngitis, and acute nasopharyngitis (the common cold).
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), 2018

  • Fracture of head and neck was the most common first-listed nondental condition among treat-and-release ED visits with a secondary diagnosis of a dental condition.

    Among dental-related ED visits with only a secondary diagnosis of a dental condition, the most common first-listed nondental diagnosis for treat-and-release ED visits was fracture of head and neck (6.5 percent) and the most common principal nondental diagnosis for ED visits resulting in hospital admission was septicemia (13.2 percent).

Appendix A. ICD-10-CM dental-related diagnosis codes in CCSR DIG002, Disorders of Teeth and Gingiva, by groups of dental conditions
ICD-10-CM code ICD-10-CM code description ICD-10-CM code ICD-10-CM code description
Disorders of tooth development and eruption
K000 Anodontia K005 Hereditary disturbances in tooth structure, not elsewhere classified
K001 Supernumerary teeth K006 Disturbances in tooth eruption
K002 Abnormalities of size and form of teeth K007 Teething syndrome
K003 Mottled teeth K008 Other disorders of tooth development
K004 Disturbances in tooth formation K009 Disorder of tooth development, unspecified
Embedded and impacted teeth
K010 Embedded teeth K011 Impacted teeth
Dental caries
K023 Arrested dental caries K0262 Dental caries on smooth surface penetrating into dentin
K0251 Dental caries on pit and fissure surface limited to enamel K0263 Dental caries on smooth surface penetrating into pulp
K0252 Dental caries on pit and fissure surface penetrating into dentin K027 Dental root caries
K0253 Dental caries on pit and fissure surface penetrating into pulp K029 Dental caries, unspecified
K0261 Dental caries on smooth surface limited to enamel    
Cracked tooth and other diseases of hard tissues of teeth
K030 Excessive attrition of teeth K036 Deposits [accretions] on teeth
K031 Abrasion of teeth K037 Posteruptive color changes of dental hard tissues
K032 Erosion of teeth K0381 Cracked tooth
K033 Pathological resorption of teeth K0389 Other specified diseases of hard tissues of teeth
K034 Hypercementosis K039 Disease of hard tissues of teeth, unspecified
K035 Ankylosis of teeth    
Dislocation of tooth
S032XXA Dislocation of tooth, initial encounter S032XXS Dislocation of tooth, sequela
S032XXD Dislocation of tooth, subsequent encounter    
Diseases of pulp and periapical tissues
K040 Pulpitis K045 Chronic apical periodontitis
K0401 Reversible pulpitis K046 Periapical abscess with sinus
K0402 Irreversible pulpitis K047 Periapical abscess without sinus
K041 Necrosis of pulp K048 Radicular cyst
K042 Pulp degeneration K0490 Unspecified diseases of pulp and periapical tissues
K043 Abnormal hard tissue formation in pulp K0499 Other diseases of pulp and periapical tissues
K044 Acute apical periodontitis of pulpal origin    
Gingival disorders
K0500 Acute gingivitis, plaque induced K06020 Generalized gingival recession, unspecified
K0501 Acute gingivitis, non-plaque induced K06021 Generalized gingival recession, minimal
K0510 Chronic gingivitis, plaque induced K06022 Generalized gingival recession, moderate
K0511 Chronic gingivitis, non-plaque induced K06023 Generalized gingival recession, severe
K060 Gingival recession K061 Gingival enlargement
K06010 Localized gingival recession, unspecified K062 Gingival and edentulous alveolar ridge lesions associated with trauma
K06011 Localized gingival recession, minimal K063 Horizontal alveolar bone loss
K06012 Localized gingival recession, moderate K068 Other specified disorders of gingiva and edentulous alveolar ridge
K06013 Localized gingival recession, severe K069 Disorder of gingiva and edentulous alveolar ridge, unspecified
Periodontitis
K0520 Aggressive periodontitis, unspecified K05311 Chronic periodontitis, localized, slight
K0521 Aggressive periodontitis, localized K05312 Chronic periodontitis, localized, moderate
K0521 Aggressive periodontitis, localized, slight K05313 Chronic periodontitis, localized, severe
K05212 Aggressive periodontitis, localized, moderate K05319 Chronic periodontitis, localized, unspecified severity
K05213 Aggressive periodontitis, localized, severe K0532 Chronic periodontitis, generalized
K05219 Aggressive periodontitis, localized, unspecified severity K05321 Chronic periodontitis, generalized, slight
K0522 Aggressive periodontitis, generalized K05322 Chronic periodontitis, generalized, moderate
K05221 Aggressive periodontitis, generalized, slight K05323 Chronic periodontitis, generalized, severe
K05222 Aggressive periodontitis, generalized, moderate K05329 Chronic periodontitis, generalized, unspecified severity
K05223 Aggressive periodontitis, generalized, severe K054 Periodontosis
K05229 Aggressive periodontitis, generalized, unspecified severity K055 Other periodontal diseases
K0530 Chronic periodontitis, unspecified K056 Periodontal disease, unspecified
K0531 Chronic periodontitis, localized    
Loss of teeth and similar disorders of teeth and supporting structures
K080 Exfoliation of teeth due to systemic causes K08404 Partial loss of teeth, unspecified cause, class IV
K08101 Complete loss of teeth, unspecified cause, class I K08409 Partial loss of teeth, unspecified cause, unspecified class
K08102 Complete loss of teeth, unspecified cause, class II K08411 Partial loss of teeth due to trauma, class I
K08103 Complete loss of teeth, unspecified cause, class III K08412 Partial loss of teeth due to trauma, class II
K08104 Complete loss of teeth, unspecified cause, class IV K08413 Partial loss of teeth due to trauma, class III
K08109 Complete loss of teeth, unspecified cause, unspecified class K08414 Partial loss of teeth due to trauma, class IV
K08111 Complete loss of teeth due to trauma, class I K08419 Partial loss of teeth due to trauma, unspecified class
K08112 Complete loss of teeth due to trauma, class II K08421 Partial loss of teeth due to periodontal diseases, class I
K08113 Complete loss of teeth due to trauma, class III K08422 Partial loss of teeth due to periodontal diseases, class II
K08114 Complete loss of teeth due to trauma, class IV K08423 Partial loss of teeth due to periodontal diseases, class III
K08119 Complete loss of teeth due to trauma, unspecified class K08424 Partial loss of teeth due to periodontal diseases, class IV
K08121 Complete loss of teeth due to periodontal diseases, class I K08429 Partial loss of teeth due to periodontal diseases, unspecified class
K08122 Complete loss of teeth due to periodontal diseases, class II K08431 Partial loss of teeth due to caries, class I
K08123 Complete loss of teeth due to periodontal diseases, class III K08432 Partial loss of teeth due to caries, class II
K08124 Complete loss of teeth due to periodontal diseases, class IV K08433 Partial loss of teeth due to caries, class III
K08129 Complete loss of teeth due to periodontal diseases, unspecified class K08434 Partial loss of teeth due to caries, class IV
K08131 Complete loss of teeth due to caries, class I K08439 Partial loss of teeth due to caries, unspecified class
K08132 Complete loss of teeth due to caries, class II K08491 Partial loss of teeth due to other specified cause, class I
K08133 Complete loss of teeth due to caries, class III K08492 Partial loss of teeth due to other specified cause, class II
K08134 Complete loss of teeth due to caries, class IV K08493 Partial loss of teeth due to other specified cause, class III
K08139 Complete loss of teeth due to caries, unspecified class K08494 Partial loss of teeth due to other specified cause, class IV
K08191 Complete loss of teeth due to other specified cause, class I K08499 Partial loss of teeth due to other specified cause, unspecified class
K08192 Complete loss of teeth due to other specified cause, class II K0850 Unsatisfactory restoration of tooth, unspecified
K08193 Complete loss of teeth due to other specified cause, class III K0851 Open restoration margins of tooth
K08194 Complete loss of teeth due to other specified cause, class IV K0852 Unrepairable overhanging of dental restorative materials
K08199 Complete loss of teeth due to other specified cause, unspecified class K08530 Fractured dental restorative material without loss of material
K0820 Unspecified atrophy of edentulous alveolar ridge K08531 Fractured dental restorative material with loss of material
K0821 Minimal atrophy of the mandible K08539 Fractured dental restorative material, unspecified
K0822 Moderate atrophy of the mandible K0854 Contour of existing restoration of tooth biologically incompatible with oral health
K0823 Severe atrophy of the mandible K0855 Allergy to existing dental restorative material
K0824 Minimal atrophy of maxilla K0856 Poor aesthetic of existing restoration of tooth
K0825 Moderate atrophy of the maxilla K0859 Other unsatisfactory restoration of tooth
K0826 Severe atrophy of the maxilla K088 Other specified disorders of teeth and supporting structures
K083 Retained dental root K0881 Primary occlusal trauma
K08401 Partial loss of teeth, unspecified cause, class I K0882 Secondary occlusal trauma
K08402 Partial loss of teeth, unspecified cause, class II K0889 Other specified disorders of teeth and supporting structures
K08403 Partial loss of teeth, unspecified cause, class III K089 Disorder of teeth and supporting structures, unspecified
Cysts of oral region, not elsewhere classified
K090 Developmental odontogenic cysts K091 Developmental (nonodontogenic) cysts of oral region
Dentofacial anomalies
M2600 Unspecified anomaly of jaw size M2633 Horizontal displacement of fully erupted tooth or teeth
M2601 Maxillary hyperplasia M2634 Vertical displacement of fully erupted tooth or teeth
M2602 Maxillary hypoplasia M2635 Rotation of fully erupted tooth or teeth
M2603 Mandibular hyperplasia M2636 Insufficient interocclusal distance of fully erupted teeth (ridge)
M2604 Mandibular hypoplasia M2637 Excessive interocclusal distance of fully erupted teeth
M2605 Macrogenia M2639 Other anomalies of tooth position of fully erupted tooth or teeth
M2606 Microgenia M264 Malocclusion, unspecified
M2607 Excessive tuberosity of jaw M2650 Dentofacial functional abnormalities, unspecified
M2609 Other specified anomalies of jaw size M2651 Abnormal jaw closure
M2610 Unspecified anomaly of jaw-cranial base relationship M2652 Limited mandibular range of motion
M2611 Maxillary asymmetry M2653 Deviation in opening and closing of the mandible
M2612 Other jaw asymmetry M2654 Insufficient anterior guidance
M2619 Other specified anomalies of jaw-cranial base relationship M2655 Centric occlusion maximum intercuspation discrepancy
M2620 Unspecified anomaly of dental arch relationship M2656 Non-working side interference
M26211 Malocclusion, Angles class I M2657 Lack of posterior occlusal support
M26212 Malocclusion, Angles class II M2659 Other dentofacial functional abnormalities
M26213 Malocclusion, Angles class III M2670 Unspecified alveolar anomaly
M26219 Malocclusion, Angles class, unspecified M2671 Alveolar maxillary hyperplasia
M26220 Open anterior occlusal relationship M2672 Alveolar mandibular hyperplasia
M26221 Open posterior occlusal relationship M2673 Alveolar maxillary hypoplasia
M2623 Excessive horizontal overlap M2674 Alveolar mandibular hypoplasia
M2624 Reverse articulation M2679 Other specified alveolar anomalies
M2625 Anomalies of interarch distance M2681 Anterior soft tissue impingement
M2629 Other anomalies of dental arch relationship M2682 Posterior soft tissue impingement
M2630 Unspecified anomaly of tooth position of fully erupted tooth or teeth M2689 Other dentofacial anomalies
M2631 Crowding of fully erupted teeth M269 Dentofacial anomaly, unspecified
M2632 Excessive spacing of fully erupted teeth    
Other diseases of jaws
M273 Alveolitis of jaws M2761 Osseointegration failure of dental implant
M2751 Perforation of root canal space due to endodontic treatment M2762 Post-osseointegration biological failure of dental implant
M2752 Endodontic overfill M2763 Post-osseointegration mechanical failure of dental implant
M2753 Endodontic underfill M2769 Other endosseous dental implant failure
M2759 Other periradicular pathology associated with previous endodontic treatment    
Abbreviations: CCSR, Clinical Classifications Software Refined for ICD-10-CM Diagnoses, v.2021.1; ICD-10-CM, International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification

References

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2 National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. 2000. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. www.nidcr.nih.gov/sites/default/files/2017-10/hck1ocv.%40www.surgeon.fullrpt.pdf. Accessed June 30, 2021.
3 Eke PI, Dye BA, Wei L, Slade GD, Thornton-Evans GO, Borgnakke WS, et al. Update on prevalence of periodontitis in adults in the United States: NHANES 2009-2012. Journal of Periodontology. 2015;86(5):611-22.
4 Cohen LA, Manski RJ, Magder LS, Mullins D. A Medicaid population's use of physicians' offices for dental problems. American Journal of Public Health. 2003;93(8):1297-301.
5 Cohen LA, Manski RJ, Magder LS, Mullins D. Dental visits to hospital emergency departments by adults receiving Medicaid: assessing their use. Journal of the American Dental Association. 2002;133(6):715-24.
6 American Dental Association Health Policy Institute. Emergency Department Visits for Dental Conditions - A Snapshot. April 2020. www.ada.org/~/media/ADA/Science%20and%20Research/HPI/Files/HPIgraphic_0420_1.pdf?la=en. Accessed June 29, 2021.

About Statistical Briefs

Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Briefs provide basic descriptive statistics on a variety of topics using HCUP administrative healthcare data. Topics include hospital inpatient, ambulatory surgery, and emergency department use and costs, quality of care, access to care, medical conditions, procedures, and patient populations, among other topics. The reports are intended to generate hypotheses that can be further explored in other research; the reports are not designed to answer in-depth research questions using multivariate methods.

Data Source

The estimates in this Statistical Brief are based upon data from the HCUP 2018 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS).a Supplemental sources included population denominator data for use with HCUP databases, derived from information available from Claritas, a vendor that produces population estimates and projections based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau.b

Definitions

Diagnoses, ICD-10-CM, and Clinical Classifications Software Refined (CCSR) for ICD-10-CM Diagnoses
For emergency department (ED) visits that are treated and released, the first-listed diagnosis represents the condition, symptom, or problem identified in the medical record to be chiefly responsible for the ED services provided. In cases where the first-listed diagnosis is a symptom or problem, a diagnosis has not been established (confirmed) by the provider. For ED visits that result in an inpatient admission, the first-listed diagnosis is the principal diagnosis, the condition established after study to be chiefly responsible for the patient's admission to the hospital. Secondary diagnoses are conditions that coexist at the time of the ED visit or inpatient admission, that require or affect patient care treatment received or management, or that develop during the inpatient stay. All-listed diagnoses include the first-listed (principal) diagnosis plus the secondary conditions.

ICD-10-CM is the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification. There are over 70,000 ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes.

The CCSR aggregates ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes into a manageable number of clinically meaningful categories.c The CCSR is intended to be used analytically to examine patterns of healthcare in terms of cost, utilization, and outcomes; rank utilization by diagnoses; and risk-adjust by clinical condition. The CCSR capitalizes on the specificity of the ICD-10-CM coding scheme and allows ICD-10-CM codes to be classified in more than one category. Approximately 10 percent of diagnosis codes are associated with more than one CCSR category because the diagnosis code documents either multiple conditions or a condition along with a common symptom or manifestation. For this Statistical Brief, the principal diagnosis code is assigned to a single default CCSR based on clinical coding guidelines, etiology and pathology of diseases, and standards set by other Federal agencies. The assignment of the default CCSR for the first-listed diagnosis for outpatient data is available starting with version v2021.1 of the software tool. ICD-10-CM coding definitions for each CCSR category presented in this Statistical Brief can be found in the CCSR reference file, available at www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/toolssoftware/ccsr/ccs_refined.jsp#download. For this Statistical Brief, v2021.1 of the CCSR was used.

Case definition
Dental-related ED visits were defined as those with any ICD-10-CM diagnosis code in CCSR DIG002, Disorders of Teeth and Gingiva. DIG002 includes 229 ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes related to dental caries, cysts in the oral region, dentofacial anomalies, periodontitis, diseases of pulp and periapical tissues, dislocation of a tooth, disorders of tooth development and eruption, embedded or impacted teeth, gingival disorders, cracked tooth and other disease of hard tissues of teeth, other diseases of the jaw, and loss of teeth and similar disorders of teeth and supporting structures (Appendix A).

Types of hospitals included in the HCUP Nationwide Emergency Department Sample
The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) is based on ED data from community acute care hospitals, which are defined as short-term, non-Federal, general, and other specialty hospitals available to the public. Included among community hospitals are pediatric institutions and hospitals that are part of academic medical centers. Excluded are long-term care facilities such as rehabilitation, psychiatric, and alcoholism and chemical dependency hospitals. Hospitals included in the NEDS have EDs, and no more than 90 percent of their ED visits result in admission.

Unit of analysis
The unit of analysis is the ED visit, not a person or patient. This means that a person who is seen in the ED multiple times in 1 year will be counted each time as a separate visit in the ED.

Population rates
Rates of ED visits per 100,000 population were calculated using 2018 ED visit totals in the numerator and Claritasd estimates of the 2018 U.S. population in the denominator. Individual patients seen in the ED multiple times are counted more than once in the numerator.

Population rate of ED visits related to dental conditions equals number of dental-related ED visits divided by the number of U.S. residents times 100,000

Reporting of race and ethnicity
Data on Hispanic ethnicity are collected differently among the States and also can differ from the census methodology of collecting information on race (White, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, Other [including mixed race]) separately from ethnicity (Hispanic, non-Hispanic). State data organizations often collect Hispanic ethnicity as one of several categories that include race. Therefore, for multistate analyses, HCUP creates the combined categorization of race and ethnicity for data from States that report ethnicity separately. When a State data organization collects Hispanic ethnicity separately from race, HCUP uses Hispanic ethnicity to override any other race category to create a Hispanic category for the uniformly coded race/ethnicity data element, while also retaining the original race and ethnicity data. This Statistical Brief reports race/ethnicity for the following categories: Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, and non-Hispanic Other.

Location of patients' residence
Place of residence is based on the urban-rural classification scheme for U.S. counties developed by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and based on the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) definition of a metropolitan service area as including a city and a population of at least 50,000 residents:
  • Large Central Metropolitan: Counties in a metropolitan area with 1 million or more residents that satisfy at least one of the following criteria: (1) containing the entire population of the largest principal city of the metropolitan statistical area (MSA), (2) having their entire population contained within the largest principal city of the MSA, or (3) containing at least 250,000 residents of any principal city in the MSA
  • Large Fringe Metropolitan: Counties in a metropolitan area with 1 million or more residents that do not qualify as large central metropolitan counties
  • Medium Metropolitan: Counties in a metropolitan area of 250,000-999,999 residents
  • Small Metropolitan: Counties in a metropolitan area of 50,000-249,999 residents
  • Micropolitan: Counties in a nonmetropolitan area of 10,000-49,999 residents
  • Noncore (rural): Counties in a nonmetropolitan and nonmicropolitan area
For this Statistical Brief, we combined the large central and large fringe metropolitan categories and the medium and small metropolitan categories.

Community-level income
Community-level income is based on the median household income of the patient's ZIP Code of residence. Quartiles are defined so that the total U.S. population is evenly distributed. Cut-offs for the quartiles are determined annually using ZIP Code demographic data obtained from Claritas, a vendor that produces population estimates and projections based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau.e The value ranges for the income quartiles vary by year. The income quartile is missing for patients who are homeless or foreign.

Expected payer
To make coding uniform across all HCUP data sources, the primary expected payer for the ED visit combines detailed categories into general groups:
  • Medicare: includes fee-for-service and managed care Medicare
  • Medicaid: includes fee-for-service and managed care Medicaid
  • Private insurance: includes commercial nongovernmental payers, regardless of the type of plan (e.g., private health maintenance organizations [HMOs], preferred provider organizations [PPOs])
  • Self-pay/No charge: includes self-pay, no charge, charity, and no expected payment
  • Other payers: includes other Federal and local government programs (e.g., TRICARE, CHAMPVA, Indian Health Service, Black Lung, Title V) and Workers' Compensation
ED visits that were expected to be billed to the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) are included under Medicaid.

For this Statistical Brief, when more than one payer is listed for an ED visit, the first-listed payer is used.

About HCUP

The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP, pronounced "H-Cup") is a family of healthcare databases and related software tools and products developed through a Federal-State-Industry partnership and sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). HCUP databases bring together the data collection efforts of State data organizations, hospital associations, and private data organizations (HCUP Partners) and the Federal government to create a national information resource of encounter-level healthcare data. HCUP includes the largest collection of longitudinal hospital care data in the United States, with all-payer, encounter-level information beginning in 1988. These databases enable research on a broad range of health policy issues, including cost and quality of health services, medical practice patterns, access to healthcare programs, and outcomes of treatments at the national, State, and local market levels.

HCUP would not be possible without the contributions of the following data collection Partners from across the United States:

About the NEDS

The HCUP Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) is a unique and powerful database that yields national estimates of emergency department (ED) visits. The NEDS was constructed using records from both the HCUP State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) and the State Inpatient Databases (SID). The SEDD capture information on ED visits that do not result in an admission (i.e., patients who were treated in the ED and then released from the ED, or patients who were transferred to another hospital); the SID contain information on patients initially seen in the ED and then admitted to the same hospital. The NEDS was created to enable analyses of ED utilization patterns and support public health professionals, administrators, policymakers, and clinicians in their decision making regarding this critical source of care. The NEDS is produced annually beginning in 2006. Over time, the sampling frame for the NEDS has changed; thus, the number of States contributing to the NEDS varies from year to year. The NEDS is intended for national estimates only; no State-level estimates can be produced. The unweighted sample size for the 2018 NEDS is 35,807,950 (weighted, this represents 143,454,430 ED visits).

For More Information

For previous information on ED visits related to dental conditions, refer to the HCUP Statistical Brief located at www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb143.pdf.

For additional HCUP statistics, visit:
For more information about HCUP, visit www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/.

For a detailed description of HCUP and more information on the design of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), please refer to the following database documentation:

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Overview of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Updated November 2020. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/nedsoverview.jsp. Accessed January 22, 2021.

Suggested Citation

Owens PL (AHRQ), Manski RJ (AHRQ), Weiss AJ (IBM Watson Health). Emergency Department Visits Involving Dental Conditions, 2018. HCUP Statistical Brief #280. August 2021. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb280-Dental-ED-Visits-2018.pdf.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of Minya Sheng of IBM Watson Health and Marguerite Barrett of M.L. Barrett, Inc.

***

AHRQ welcomes questions and comments from readers of this publication who are interested in obtaining more information about access, cost, use, financing, and quality of healthcare in the United States. We also invite you to tell us how you are using this Statistical Brief and other HCUP data and tools, and to share suggestions on how HCUP products might be enhanced to further meet your needs. Please email us at hcup@ahrq.gov or send a letter to the address below:

Joel W. Cohen, Ph.D., Director
Center for Financing, Access and Cost Trends
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, MD 20857


This Statistical Brief was posted online on August 19, 2021.


a Note that race/ethnicity data are not included on the publicly available NEDS.
b Claritas. Claritas Demographic Profile by ZIP Code. https://claritas360.claritas.com/mybestsegments/. Exit Disclaimer Accessed January 22, 2021.
c Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. HCUP Clinical Classifications Software Refined (CCSR) for ICD-10-CM Diagnoses. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Updated March 2021. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/toolssoftware/ccsr/dxccsr.jsp. Accessed June 14, 2021.
d Claritas. Claritas Demographic Profile by ZIP Code. https://claritas360.claritas.com/mybestsegments/. Exit Disclaimer Accessed January 22, 2021.
e Claritas. Claritas Demographic Profile by ZIP Code. https://claritas360.claritas.com/mybestsegments/. Exit Disclaimer Accessed January 22, 2021.

Internet Citation: Statistical Brief #280. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). August 2021. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb280-Dental-ED-Visits-2018.jsp.
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